Geography Optional Syllabus For UPSC | Pdf UPSC Mains Syllabus For Optional Subjects – UPSC Exam 2021

Geography Optional Syllabus For UPSC

The disciplinary subject of UPSC has 48 subjects, one of which is Geography. Discretionary prospectus for the subject has a large cover with the general study. These are the main optional subjects in the Mains exam. Geography optional syllabus for UPSC- The topics recalled for this topic are identified by physical and human geology, financial topography, and the topography of India.

Geography Optional Syllabus For UPSC

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

The geography optional subject syllabus by UPSC is given below.

Download All Subject Syllabus of UPSC Optional


Geomorph: Origin and evolution of earth’s crust; Geomorph: The physical condition of earth’s interior; Geomorph: Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Geomorph: Continental drift, Geomorph: Plate tectonics; Geomorph: Geosynclines; Geomorph: Recent views on mountain building; Geomorph: Vulcanicity; Geomorph: Isostasy; Geomorph: Endogenetic and exogenetic forces;
Geomorph: Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Geomorph: Factors controlling landform development; Geomorph: Slope development; Geomorph: Channel morphology; Geomorph: Denudation chronology; Geomorph: Erosion surfaces; Geomorph: Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, Economic geology, Environment; Phy. Sett: Structure; Phy. Sett.: Relief; Phy. Sett.: Physiographic regions; Phy. Sett: The drainage system


Climate: Temperature; Climate: Pressure belts of the world; Climate: Heat budget of the earth; Climate: Atmospheric circulation; Climate: Planetary winds; Climate: Local winds; Climate: Atmospheric stability and instability; Climate: Monsoons, Phy. Sett.: Mechanism of Indian monsoons; Climate: Jet streams; Climate: Air masses; Climate: Fronted genesis; Climate: Temperate cyclones,
Climate: Tropical cyclones, Phy. Sett.: Tropical cyclones; Climate: Weather and Climate; Climate: Hydrological cycle; Climate: Types of precipitation; Climate: Distribution of precipitation; Phy. Sett.: Indian rainfall patterns, Phy. Sett.: Western disturbances; Climate: Hoppen’s, Thornthwaite’s, Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Phy. Sett.: Climatic regions; Climate: Applied Climatology, Climate: Urban climate


BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY: Ocean: Bottom topography of the Atlantic Ocean; Ocean: Bottom topography of the Indian Ocean; Ocean: Bottom topography of the Pacific Ocean.
Ocean: Temperature of the oceans; Ocean: Salinity of the oceans; Ocean: Heat budget; Ocean: Salt budget; Ocean: Ocean deposits; Ocean: Marine pollution; Ocean: Waves; Ocean: Currents; Ocean: Tides; Ocean: Sea level changes; Ocean: Coral reefs; Ocean: Coral bleaching


BIOGEOGRAPHY: SOIL: Biome: Genesis of soils; Biogeo: Classification soils, Phy. Sett.: Soil types; Biogeo: Distribution of soils, Phy. Sett.: Soil distributions; Biogeo: Soil profile; Biogeo: Soil erosion, Contemp Iss: Soil erosion; Biogeo: Soil degradation; Biogeo: Soil conservation
BIOGEOGRAPHY: PLANT AND ANIMALS: Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals; Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants; Biogeo: Major gene pool centres; Envt. Geo.: Biodiversity
ENVIRONMENT: Envt. Geo.: Principle of ecology; Envt. Geo.: Ecosystem, their management and conservation; Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, Contemp Iss: Deforestation; Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants; Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals.

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DEGRADATION: Envt. Geo.: Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides; Gynomorph: Earthquakes, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: earthquakes; neomorph: Tsunamis, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: Tsunamis; Physical Setting: Floods,

Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: floods; Phy. Sett.: Droughts, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: droughts; Contemp Iss: Desertification; Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: epidemics; Envt. Geo.: Environmental degradation, Contemp Iss: Environmental degradation; Contemp Iss: Issues relating to environmental pollution; Climate: Global climatic change, Climate: Role and response of man in climatic changes; Envt. Geo.: Influence of man on ecology and environment; Envt. Geo.: Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances.
ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING: Envt. Geo.: Environmental management, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental management; Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental impact assessment; Envt. Geo.: Environmental conservation; Biogeo: Wildlife, Resources: Wildlife resources,
Resources: Conservation of Wildlife resources; Envt. Geo.: Sustainable development, Contemp Iss: Concept of sustainable growth and development; Envt. Geo.: Environmental policy; Envt. Geo.: Environmental education; Contemp Iss: Environmental awareness; Envt. Geo.: Environmental legislation


Perspectives: Paradigms; Perspectives in HG: Areal differentiation; Perspectives in HG: Regional synthesis; Perspectives in HG: Dichotomy; Perspectives in HG: Dualism; Perspectives in HG: Environmentalism; Envt Geo: Human ecological adaptations.
QUANTIFICATION IN GEOGRAPHY: Models; MT&L in HG: Systems analysis in Human geography; Gravity Model; Diffusion of innovation; Positivism; Perspectives in HG: Locational analysis; Perspectives in HG: Quantitative revolution.
CRITICAL REVOLUTION: Perspectives in HG: Radical approach; Perspectives in HG: Behavioral approach; Perspectives in HG: Human approach; Perspectives in HG: Welfare approach


Cultural Sett: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Cultural Sett: Racial diversities; Cultural Sett: Ethnic diversities; Perspectives in HG: Languages; Cultural Sett: Linguistic diversities; Perspectives in HG: Secularization; Perspectives in HG: Religions; Cultural Sett: Religious minorities;
Cultural Sett: Major tribes, tribal areas, and their problems; Regional D&P: Tribal area development; Perspectives in HG: Cultural regions of the world; Cultural Sett: Cultural regions; Population and SG: Social well-being; Population and SG: Quality of life; Population and SG: Population as social capital; Cultural Sett: Health indicators; Perspectives in HG: Human development index.


Population and SG: Population theories; MT&L in HG: Malthusian theory, Marxian theory, Demographic transition model; Population and SG: Concepts of the over-under-and optimum population; Population and SG: Growth of world population; Cultural Sett: Growth of population; Population and SG: Distribution of world population; Cultural Sett: Distribution of population; Cultural Sett: Density of population.

DEMOGRAPHIC ATTRIBUTES: Population and SG: Demographic attributes; Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: sex-ratio; Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: age structure; Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: literacy rate; Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: workforce, dependency ratio; Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: longevity.

MIGRATION: Cultural Sett: Migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international); Population and SG: Causes of migration; Population and SG: Consequences of migration; Cultural Sett: Associated problems of migration.

POPULATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS: Economic Geo: Food and nutrition problems; Economic Geo: Food security, Contemp Iss: Population explosion and Food security; Economic Geo: Famine: causes, effects, and remedies; Population and SG: World population problems, Cultural Sett: Population problems; Population and SG: World population policies, Cultural Sett: Population policies.


RURAL SETTLEMENT: Population and SG: Types of rural settlements, Settlements: Type of rural settlements; Population and SG: Patterns of rural settlements, Settlements: Patterns of rural settlements; Settlements: Morphology of rural settlements; Population and SG: Environmental issues in rural settlements.
URBAN SETTLEMENT: Settlements: Urban developments; MT&L in HG: Central Place Theory of Chrystelle, MT&L in HG: Central Place Theory of Losch; Population and SG: Urban morphology, Settlements: Morphology of Indian cities; Population and SG: Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city;

Population and SG: Urban morphology: Rank-size rule; Population and SG: Rural-urban fringe; Population and SG: Satellite towns; Settlements: Conurbations; Settlements: Urban sprawl; Population and SG: Hierarchy of urban settlements; Pupil. & SG: Functional classification of towns, Settlements: Functional classification of Indian cities.

TOWN PLANNING: Settlements: Town planning, Population & SG: Sustainable development of cities; Population and SG: Problems and remedies of urbanization, Settlements: Problems of urbanization and remedies; Settlements: Slums and associated problems


Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Regional Planning: Types of regions; Regional Planning: Methods of regionalization, Population, and SG: Sphere of urban influence, Settlements: Metropolitan regions; Regional Planning: Growth centers and growth poles, MT&L in HG: Perroux and Boudeville;
MT&L in HG: Rostov’s model of stages of growth; Regional Planning: Regional imbalances, Contemp Iss: Regional disparities in economic development; Regional Planning: Regional development strategies; Regional Pl: Planning for sustainable development;
Regional Pl: Environmental issues in regional planning; Regional D&P: Experience of regional planning in India; Regional D&P: Five Year Plans; Regional D&P: Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning; Regional D&P: Multi-level planning; Regional D&P: Integrated rural development programs; Regional D&P: Planning for backward areas; Regional D&P: Planning for desert areas; Regional D&P: Planning for drought-prone areas;
Regional D&P: Planning for hill areas; Regional D&P: Regional planning and development of island territories; Regional D&P: Command area development; Physical Setting: Watersheds, Regional D&P: Watershed management


Eco. Geo.: World economic development: measurement; Eco. Geo.: World economic development: problems; Eco. Geo.: The limits to growth


TRANSPORT: Transport, C&T: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Transport, C&T: Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Transport, C&T: Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on the economy and society.
WORLD TRADE: Eco. Geo.: Patterns of world trade; Transport, C&T: Trade balance; Transport, C&T: Trade Policy; Contemp Iss: Globalization and Indian economy.


Eco. Geo.: World resources and their distribution
ENERGY RESOURCES: Resources: Energy resources.
MINERAL RESOURCES: Resources: Mineral resources
WATER RESOURCES: Resources: Surface and groundwater resources
LAND RESOURCES: Resources: Land resources; Contempt Iss: Changes in patterns of land use

BIOTIC RESOURCES: Resources: Biotic resources; Phy. Sett.: Natural vegetation; Resources: Forest resources; Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, Contempt Iss: Deforestation; Biogeo: (Forest) conservation measures, Resources: Conservation of Forest resources

MARINE RESOURCES: Resources: Marine resources; Ocean: Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources.
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Eco. Geo.: Energy crisis, Resources: Energy crisis.

UNIT 12: INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

Eco. Geo.: World industries: locational patterns; MT&L in HG: Weber’s model of industrial location; Industry: Loc. Fac. of cotton industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of jute industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of textile industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of iron and steel industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of aluminum industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of fertilizer industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of paper industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of chemical industries;

Industry: Loc. Fac. of pharmaceutical industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of Automobile industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of cottage industries; Industry: Loc. Fac. of agro-based industries; Industry: Evolution of industries; Industry: Industrial complexes; Industry: Industrial regionalization; Industry: New industrial policies; Industry: Multinationals, Industry: Liberalization; Eco. Geo.: World industries: problems; Industry: Tourism including eco-tourism; Industry: Industrial houses; Industry: Public sector undertakings; Industry: Special Economic Zones; Transport, C&T: Export processing zones; Contempt Iss: Problems of industrial unrest.

UNIT 13: AGRICULTURE GEOGRAPHY || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

AGRICULTURAL REGIONS: Agriculture: Agricultural regionalization; Eco. Geo.: World agriculture: a typology of agricultural regions; Agriculture: Significance of dry farming; Agriculture: Agro-climatic zones; Agriculture: Agroecological regions.
DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURE: MT&L in HG: Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Eco. Geo.: Agricultural inputs; Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Agriculture: Institutional factors: landholdings, land tenure, and land reforms.
CONCEPTS IN AGRICULTURE: Agriculture: Cropping pattern; Eco. Geo.: Agricultural productivity, Agriculture: Agricultural productivity; Agriculture: Agricultural intensity; Agriculture: Crop combination; Agriculture: Land capability.
ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES: Agriculture: Livestock resources; Agriculture: White revolution; Agriculture: Aqua culture; Agriculture: Sericulture; Agriculture: Apiculture; Agriculture: Poultry.
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: Agriculture: Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Biogeo: Social forestry, Agriculture: Social forestry, Biogeo: Agroforestry, Agriculture: Agroforestry; Contempt Iss: Problems of agrarian unrest.

UNIT 14: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

MT&L in HG: Heartland theory, MT&L in HG: Rimland theory; MT&L in HG: Laws of international boundaries and frontiers; Ocean: Law of the sea; Pol. Asp.: International boundary of India and related issues; Pay. Sett.: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Pol. Asp.: India’s role in world affairs;
Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of South Asia, Transport, C&T: Indian space program; Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of Indian Ocean realm; Pol. Asp.: Cross border terrorism; Pol. Asp.: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; Pol. Asp.: State reorganization; Pol. Asp.: Emergence of new states; Pol. Asp.: Regional consciousness; Pol. Asp.: Inter-state issues, Contempt Iss: Linkage of rivers

UNIT 15: MAPS || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!